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Ratification of Constitutional Amendments

Article 5 of the Constitution provides for the amendment of the Constitution by various means (see The Amendments Page for details). However an amendment is proposed, it does not become part of the Constitution unless it is ratified by three-quarters of the states (either the legislatures thereof, or in amendment conventions). The following is a record of each ratified amendment and the states and dates that led to the ratification. The Constitutional Timeline and the Ratification Grid may also be of interest.

The information contained on this page was found on the Amendments to the Constitution Page at Emory University's site and on the Text of the Amendments Page at the GPO's site. As noted on those pages, the dates published here are based on the best information available.

There is some disagreement about the ability of a state to rescind an amendment ratification prior to full ratification. In U.S. history, thus far, no rescinded ratifications have made a difference in the long run, though they certainly have happened, especially to the Reconstruction Amendments, 13 through 15. On this page, only dates of first ratification are listed. States that never accepted an amendment are not listed at all.

In each table, the "*" column will contain a * symbol next to the state that provided the required three-quarters vote for ratification. Note that the number of states required for ratification increased through history - some amendments, then, required more states at the time of ratification than they needed at the time of proposal.

Quick links: Bill of Rights, 11th, 12th, 13th, 14th, 15th, 16th, 17th, 18th, 19th, 20th, 21st, 22nd, 23rd, 24th, 25th, 26th, 27th.


The first ten amendments, commonly known as a group as the Bill of Rights, were all ratified at once. The amendments were proposed on September 25, 1789.

# State Date *
1 New Jersey Nov 20, 1789
2 Maryland Dec 19, 1789
3 North Carolina Dec 22, 1789
4 South Carolina Jan 19, 1790
5 New Hampshire Jan 25, 1790
6 Delaware Jan 28, 1790
7 New York Feb 24, 1790
8 Pennsylvania Mar 10, 1790
9 Rhode Island Jun 7, 1790
10 Vermont Nov 3, 1791
11 Virginia Dec 15, 1791 *
12 Massachusetts Mar 2, 1939
13 Georgia Mar 18, 1939
14 Connecticut Apr 19, 1939
Ratified in 811 days

The 11th Amendment, which limits Supreme Court jurisdiction, was proposed on March 4, 1794.

# State Date *
1 New York Mar 27, 1794
2 Rhode Island Mar 31, 1794
3 Connecticut May 8, 1794
4 New Hampshire Jun 16, 1794
5 Massachusetts Jun 26, 1794
6 Vermont Nov 9, 1794
7 Virginia Nov 18, 1794
8 Georgia Nov 29, 1794
9 Kentucky Dec 7, 1794
10 Maryland Dec 26, 1794
11 Delaware Jan 23, 1795
12 North Carolina Feb 7, 1795 *
13 South Carolina Dec 4, 1797
Ratified in 340 days

The 12th Amendment, which reworks the presidential selection process, was proposed on December 9, 1803.

# State Date *
1 North Carolina Dec 21, 1803
2 Maryland Dec 24, 1803
3 Kentucky Dec 27, 1803
4 Ohio Dec 30, 1803
5 Pennsylvania Jan 5, 1804
6 Vermont Jan 30, 1804
7 Virginia Feb 3, 1804
8 New York Feb 10, 1804
9 New Jersey Feb 22, 1804
10 Rhode Island Mar 12, 1804
11 South Carolina May 15, 1804
12 Georgia May 19, 1804
13 New Hampshire Jun 15, 1804 *
14 Tennessee Jul 27, 1804
Ratified in 189 days

This amendment was specifically rejected by Delaware on Jan 18, 1804; by Massachusetts on Feb 3, 1804; and by Connecticut, on May 10, 1804.


The 13th Amendment, which prohibits slavery, was proposed on January 31, 1865.

# State Date *
1 Illinois Feb 1, 1865
2 Rhode Island Feb 2, 1865
3 Michigan Feb 3, 1865
4 Maryland Feb 3, 1865
5 New York Feb 3, 1865
6 Pennsylvania Feb 3, 1865
7 West Virginia Feb 3, 1865
8 Missouri Feb 6, 1865
9 Maine Feb 7, 1865
10 Kansas Feb 7, 1865
11 Massachusetts Feb 7, 1865
12 Virginia Feb 9, 1865
13 Ohio Feb 10, 1865
14 Indiana Feb 13, 1865
15 Nevada Feb 16, 1865
16 Louisiana Feb 17, 1865
17 Minnesota Feb 23, 1865
18 Wisconsin Feb 24, 1865
19 Vermont Mar 8, 1865
20 Tennessee Apr 7, 1865
21 Arkansas Apr 14, 1865
22 Connecticut May 4, 1865
23 New Hampshire Jul 1, 1865
24 South Carolina Nov 13, 1865
25 Alabama Dec 2, 1865
26 North Carolina Dec 4, 1865
27 Georgia Dec 6, 1865 *
28 Oregon Dec 8, 1865
29 California Dec 19, 1865
30 Florida Dec 28, 1865
31 Iowa Jan 15, 1866
32 New Jersey Jan 23, 1866
33 Texas Feb 18, 1870
34 Delaware Feb 12, 1901
35 Kentucky Mar 18, 1976
36 Mississippi Mar 16, 1995 *
Ratified in 309 days

* Mississippi ratified the amendment in 1995, but the state didn't officially notify the US Archivist until 2012, when the ratification finally became official.

This amendment was specifically rejected by Delaware on Feb 8, 1865; by Kentucky on Feb 24, 1865; by New Jersey on Mar 16, 1865; and by Mississippi on Dec 4, 1865. Florida reaffirmed its ratification on Jun 9, 1868.


The 14th Amendment, which guarantees the rights of citizens and other persons, was proposed on June 13, 1866.

# State Date *
1 Connecticut Jun 25, 1866
2 New Hampshire Jul 6, 1866
3 Tennessee Jul 19, 1866
4 New Jersey Sep 11, 1866
5 Oregon Sep 19, 1866
6 Vermont Oct 30, 1866
7 Ohio Jan 4, 1867
8 New York Jan 10, 1867
9 Kansas Jan 11, 1867
10 Illinois Jan 15, 1867
11 West Virginia Jan 16, 1867
12 Michigan Jan 16, 1867
13 Minnesota Jan 16, 1867
14 Maine Jan 19, 1867
15 Nevada Jan 22, 1867
16 Indiana Jan 23, 1867
17 Missouri Jan 25, 1867
18 Rhode Island Feb 7, 1867
19 Wisconsin Feb 7, 1867
20 Pennsylvania Feb 12, 1867
21 Massachusetts Mar 20, 1867
22 Nebraska Jun 15, 1867
23 Iowa Mar 16, 1868
24 Arkansas Apr 6, 1868
25 Florida Jun 9, 1868
26 North Carolina Jul 4, 1868
27 Louisiana Jul 9, 1868
28 South Carolina Jul 9, 1868 *
29 Alabama Jul 13, 1868
30 Georgia Jul 21, 1868
31 Virginia Oct 8, 1869
32 Mississippi Jan 17, 1870
33 Texas Feb 18, 1870
34 Delaware Feb 12, 1901
35 Maryland Apr 4, 1959
36 California May 6, 1959
37 Kentucky Mar 18, 1976
Ratified in 757 days

This amendment was specifically rejected by Texas on Oct 27, 1866; by Georgia on Nov 6, 1866; by North Carolina on Dec 14, 1866; by South Carolina on Dec 20, 1866; by Kentucky on Jan 8, 1867; by Virginia on Jan 9, 1867; by Louisiana on Feb 6, 1867; by Delaware on Feb 8, 1867; and by Maryland on Mar 23, 1867. New Jersey's ratification was rescinded on Mar 24, 1868; Ohio rescinded its ratification on Jan 15, 1868 and ratified again on Mar 13, 2003.


The 15th Amendment, which ensures the right of black men to vote, was proposed on February 26, 1869.

# State Date *
1 Nevada Mar 1, 1869
2 West Virginia Mar 3, 1869
3 Illinois Mar 5, 1869
4 Louisiana Mar 5, 1869
6 Michigan Mar 5, 1869
5 North Carolina Mar 5, 1869
7 Wisconsin Mar 5, 1869
8 Maine Mar 11, 1869
9 Massachusetts Mar 12, 1869
10 Arkansas Mar 15, 1869
11 South Carolina Mar 15, 1869
12 Pennsylvania Mar 25, 1869
13 New York Apr 14, 1869
14 Indiana May 14, 1869
15 Connecticut May 19, 1869
16 Florida Jun 14, 1869
17 New Hampshire Jul 1, 1869
18 Virginia Oct 8, 1869
19 Vermont Oct 20, 1869
20 Alabama Nov 16, 1869
21 Missouri Jan 7, 1870
22 Minnesota Jan 13, 1870
23 Mississippi Jan 17, 1870
24 Rhode Island Jan 18, 1870
25 Kansas Jan 19, 1870
26 Ohio Jan 27, 1870
27 Georgia Feb 2, 1870
28 Iowa Feb 3, 1870 *
29 Nebraska Feb 17, 1870
30 Texas Feb 18, 1870
31 New Jersey Feb 15, 1871
32 Delaware Feb 12, 1901
33 Oregon Feb 24, 1959
34 California Apr 3, 1962
35 Maryland May 7, 1973
36 Kentucky Mar 18, 1976
37 Tennessee April 8, 1997
Ratified in 342 days

This amendment was specifically rejected by Kentucky on Mar 12, 1869; by Delaware on Mar 18, 1869; by Ohio on Apr 30, 1869; by Tennessee on Nov 16, 1869; by California on Jan 28, 1870; by New Jersey on Feb 7, 1870; and by Maryland on Feb 26, 1870. New York rescinded its ratification on Jan 5, 1870, and rescinded the rescission on Mar 30, 1970.


The 16th Amendment, which specifically authorizes the income tax, was proposed on July 12, 1909.

# State Date *
1 Alabama Aug 10, 1909
2 Kentucky Feb 8, 1910
3 South Carolina Feb 19, 1910
4 Illinois Mar 1, 1910
5 Mississippi Mar 7, 1910
6 Oklahoma Mar 10, 1910
7 Maryland Apr 8, 1910
8 Georgia Aug 3, 1910
9 Texas Aug 16, 1910
10 Ohio Jan 19, 1911
11 Idaho Jan 20, 1911
12 Oregon Jan 23, 1911
13 Washington Jan 26, 1911
14 Montana Jan 30, 1911
15 Indiana Jan 30, 1911
16 California Jan 31, 1911
17 Nevada Jan 31, 1911
18 South Dakota Feb 3, 1911
19 Nebraska Feb 9, 1911
20 North Carolina Feb 11, 1911
21 Colorado Feb 15, 1911
22 North Dakota Feb 17, 1911
23 Kansas Feb 18, 1911
24 Michigan Feb 23, 1911
25 Iowa Feb 24, 1911
26 Missouri Mar 16, 1911
27 Maine Mar 31, 1911
28 Tennessee Apr 7, 1911
29 Arkansas Apr 22, 1911
30 Wisconsin May 26, 1911
31 New York Jul 12, 1911
32 Arizona Apr 6, 1912
33 Minnesota Jun 11, 1912
34 Louisiana Jun 28, 1912
35 West Virginia Jan 31, 1913
36 New Mexico Feb 3, 1913 *
37 Massachusetts Mar 4, 1913
38 New Hampshire Mar 7, 1913
Ratified in 1302 days

This amendment was specifically rejected by New Hampshire on Mar 2, 1911. It was also rejected by Arkansas prior to its subsequent ratification, and by Connecticut, Rhode Island, and Utah.


The 17th Amendment, which required Senators be elected by the people, was proposed on May 13, 1912.

# State Date *
1 Massachusetts May 22, 1912
2 Arizona Jun 3, 1912
3 Minnesota Jun 10, 1912
4 New York Jan 15, 1913
5 Kansas Jan 17, 1913
6 Oregon Jan 23, 1913
7 North Carolina Jan 25, 1913
8 California Jan 28, 1913
9 Michigan Jan 28, 1913
10 Iowa Jan 30, 1913
11 Montana Jan 30, 1913
12 Idaho Jan 31, 1913
13 West Virginia Feb 4, 1913
14 Colorado Feb 5, 1913
15 Nevada Feb 6, 1913
16 Texas Feb 7, 1913
17 Washington Feb 7, 1913
18 Wyoming Feb 8, 1913
19 Arkansas Feb 11, 1913
20 Maine Feb 11, 1913
21 Illinois Feb 13, 1913
22 North Dakota Feb 14, 1913
23 Wisconsin Feb 18, 1913
24 Indiana Feb 19, 1913
25 New Hampshire Feb 19, 1913
26 Vermont Feb 19, 1913
27 South Dakota Feb 19, 1913
28 Oklahoma Feb 24, 1913
29 Ohio Feb 25, 1913
30 Missouri Mar 7, 1913
31 New Mexico Mar 13, 1913
32 Nebraska Mar 14, 1913
33 New Jersey Mar 17, 1913
34 Tennessee Apr 1, 1913
35 Pennsylvania Apr 2, 1913
36 Connecticut Apr 8, 1913 *
37 Louisiana Jun 11, 1914
37 Delaware Jun 25, 2010
Ratified in 330 days

This amendment was specifically rejected by Utah on Feb 26, 1913.


The 18th Amendment, which prohibited alcohol, was proposed on December 18, 1917.

# State Date *
1 Mississippi Jan 8, 1918
2 Virginia Jan 11, 1918
3 Kentucky Jan 14, 1918
4 North Dakota Jan 25, 1918
5 South Carolina Jan 29, 1918
6 Maryland Feb 13, 1918
7 Montana Feb 19, 1918
8 Texas Mar 4, 1918
9 Delaware Mar 18, 1918
10 South Dakota Mar 20, 1918
11 Massachusetts Apr 2, 1918
12 Arizona May 24, 1918
13 Georgia Jun 26, 1918
14 Louisiana Aug 3, 1918
15 Florida Dec 3, 1918
16 Michigan